The term female genital mutilation FGM includes any injury to a woman or girl's genitalia for reasons other than medical ones, commonly religious. The practice is thought to have started before the advent of either Christianity or Islam. FGM is sometimes called female circumcision , but the implications of female circumcision are quite different from those of male circumcision. However, 4 in 5 operations worldwide are still performed by a traditional practitioner, often in unsanitary conditions, with serious health implications. It is a small erectile part of the female genitalia.
DHS Working Papers. UK website, which is also available in other languages. Femal sexual mutalation, Sharifa A. It's also known as female circumcision or cutting, and by other terms, such as sunna, gudniin, halalays, tahur, megrez and khitan, among others. The practice predates all religions and has been seen in the mummified bodies of pharaoh princesses. Ages 0—
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The distinction between social pressure and physical force is morally and legally mutalatiion, comparable to the distinction between seduction and rape. Mandara, Mairo Sexula March London: British Museum. Shorter, Edward Wanda K. However, a C-section may not be necessary. Common reasons for FGM cited by women in surveys Femal sexual mutalation social acceptance, religion, hygiene, Femal sexual mutalation of virginity, marriageability and enhancement of male sexual pleasure. Generally speaking, risks increase with increasing severity of the procedure.
Removal of the external clitoris may particularly impair pleasure and orgasmic functioning.
- In many settings, health care providers perform FGM due to the erroneous belief that the procedure is safer when medicalized 1.
- The terms genital modification and genital mutilation can refer to permanent or temporary changes to human sex organs.
Female genital mutilation FGMalso known as female genital cutting and female circumcision[a] is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. Typically carried out by a Breast feeding and implant circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond. They include removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans ; removal of the inner labia ; and removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva.
In this last procedure, known as infibulationa small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid ; the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth. The practice is rooted in gender inequalityattempts to control women's sexualityand ideas about purity, modesty and beauty. It is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honour and fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion.
Since the United Nations has called upon healthcare providers to stop performing all forms of the procedure, including reinfibulation after childbirth and symbolic "nicking" of the clitoral hood. Until the s FGM was widely known in English as female Bigfoot pussy pics, implying an equivalence in severity with male circumcision. In Femal sexual mutalation where FGM is common, the practice's many variants are reflected in dozens of terms, often alluding to purification.
The surgical infibulation of women came to be known as pharaonic circumcision in Sudan, and as Sudanese circumcision in Egypt. The procedures are generally performed by a traditional circumciser cutter or exciseuse in the girls' homes, with or without anaesthesia. The cutter is usually an older woman, but in communities where the male barber has assumed the role of health worker he will also perform FGM.
A study in Ghana found that in four percent said they Bigge penis not undergone FGM, but in said they had, while 11 percent switched in the other direction.
Type Ia [e] involves removal of the clitoral hood only. This is rarely performed alone. Type II excision is the complete or partial removal of the inner labiawith or without removal of the clitoral glans and outer labia. Type IIa is removal of the inner labia; Type IIb, removal of the clitoral glans and inner labia; and Type IIc, removal of the clitoral glans, inner and outer labia.
Excision in French can refer to any form of FGM. The element of speed and surprise is vital and the circumciser immediately grabs the clitoris by pinching it between her nails aiming to amputate it with a slash. After the clitoris has been satisfactorily amputated Since the entire skin on the inner walls of the labia majora has to be removed all the way down to the perineum, this becomes a messy business. By now, the child is screaming, struggling, and bleeding profusely, which makes it difficult for the circumciser to hold with bare fingers and nails the slippery skin and parts that are to be cut or sutured together.
Having ensured that sufficient tissue has been removed to allow the desired fusion of the skin, the circumciser pulls together the opposite sides of the labia majora, ensuring that the raw edges where the skin has been removed are well approximated.
The wound is now ready to be stitched or for thorns to be applied. If a needle and thread are being used, close tight sutures will be placed to ensure that a flap of skin covers the vulva and extends from the mons veneris to the perineum, and which, after the wound heals, will form a bridge of scar tissue that will totally occlude the vaginal introitus. The amputated parts might be placed in a pouch for the girl to wear. To help the tissue bond, the girl's legs are tied together, often from hip to ankle; the bindings are usually loosened after a week and removed after two to six weeks.
The vagina is opened for sexual intercourse, for the first time either by a midwife with a knife or by the woman's husband with his penis. Reinfibulation can involve cutting the vagina again to restore the pinhole size of the first infibulation. This might be performed before marriage, and after childbirth, divorce and widowhood. The penetration of the bride's infibulation takes anywhere from 3 or 4 days to several months.
Some who are unable to penetrate their wives manage to get them pregnant in spite of the infibulation, and the woman's vaginal passage is then cut open to allow birth to take place. Those men who do manage to penetrate their wives do so often, or perhaps always, with the help of the "little knife". Type IV is "[a]ll other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes", including pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.
From the age of eight, girls are encouraged to stretch their inner labia using sticks and massage. Girls in Uganda are told they may have difficulty giving birth without stretched labia. These were removed from the WHO's definition because of insufficient information about prevalence and consequences. Gishiri cutting involves cutting the vagina's front or back wall with a blade or penknife, performed in response to infertility, obstructed labour and other conditions.
In a study by Nigerian physician Mairo Usman Mandara, over 30 percent of women with gishiri cuts were found to have vesicovaginal fistulae holes that allow urine to seep into the vagina. FGM harms women's physical and emotional health throughout their lives.
A systematic review of 56 studies suggested that over one in ten girls and women undergoing any form of FGM, including symbolic nicking of the clitoris Type IVexperience immediate complications, although the risks increased with Type III. The review also suggested that there was under-reporting. The practitioners' use of shared instruments is thought to aid the transmission of hepatitis Bhepatitis C and HIValthough no epidemiological studies have shown this.
Late complications vary depending on the type of FGM. Urine may collect underneath the scar, leaving the area under the skin constantly wet, which can lead to infection and the formation of small stones. The opening is larger Sterile indicator strips women who are sexually active or have given birth by vaginal delivery, but the urethra opening may still be obstructed by scar tissue.
Vesicovaginal or rectovaginal fistulae can develop holes that allow urine or faeces to seep into the vagina. Complete obstruction of the vagina can result in hematocolpos and hematometra where the vagina and uterus fill with menstrual blood. Neonatal mortality is increased. The estimate was based on a study conducted on 28, women attending delivery wards at 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan. The reasons for this were unclear, but may be connected to genital and urinary tract infections and the presence of scar tissue.
According to a systematic review there is little high-quality information available on the psychological effects of FGM. Several small studies have concluded that women with FGM suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic Essex makers mark disorder.
One third reported reduced sexual feelings. Was any flesh or something removed from the genital area? Was your genital area sewn? Over million women and girls are thought to be living with FGM in those 30 countries. The highest concentrations among the 15—49 age group are in Somalia 98 percentGuinea 97 percentDjibouti 93 percentEgypt 91 percent and Sierra Leone 90 percent.
The prevalence rate for the 0—11 group in Indonesia is 49 percent Prevalence figures for the 15—19 age group and younger show a downward trend. FGM is not invariably a rite of passage between childhood and adulthood, but is often performed on much younger children. In Kenya, for example, the Kisi cut around age 10 and the Kamba at A country's national prevalence often reflects a high sub-national prevalence among certain ethnicities, rather than a widespread practice.
For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia. Dahabo Musa, a Somali woman, described infibulation in a poem as the "three feminine sorrows": the procedure itself, the wedding night when the woman is cut open, then childbirth when she is cut again. Like FGM, footbinding was carried out on young girls, nearly universal where practised, tied to ideas about honour, chastity and appropriate marriage, and "supported and transmitted" by women.
FGM practitioners see the procedures as marking not only ethnic boundaries but also gender difference. According to this view, male circumcision defeminizes men while FGM demasculinizes women. African female symbolism revolves instead around the concept of the womb. In communities where infibulation is common, there is a preference for women's genitals to be smooth, dry and without odour, and both women and men may find the natural vulva repulsive.
Common reasons for FGM cited by women in surveys are social acceptance, religion, hygiene, preservation of virginity, marriageability and enhancement of male sexual pleasure. In Sudan in42 percent of women who had heard of FGM said the practice should continue. Against the argument that women willingly choose FGM for their daughters, UNICEF calls the practice a "self-enforcing social convention" to which families feel they must conform to avoid uncut daughters facing social exclusion.
The Zabarma girls would respond Ya, mutmura! A mutmara was a storage pit for grain that was continually opened and closed, like an infibulated woman. But despite throwing the insult back, the Zabarma girls would ask their mothers, "What's the matter?
Don't we have razor blades like the Arabs? Because of poor access to information, and because circumcisers downplay the causal connection, women may not associate the health consequences with the procedure. When informed of the causal relationship between FGM and ill Sunderland football sex, Mackie wrote, the women broke down and wept.
He argued that surveys taken before and after this sharing of information would show very different levels of support for FGM. There is no mention of FGM in the Bible. In UNICEF identified 19 African countries in which at least 10 percent of Christian women and girls aged 15 to 49 had undergone FGM; [y] in Niger, 55 percent of Christian women and girls had experienced it, compared with two percent of their Muslim counterparts.
Judaism requires male circumcision but does not allow FGM. The practice's origins are unknown. Gerry Mackie has suggested that, because FGM's east-west, north-south distribution in Africa meets in Sudan, infibulation may have begun there with the Meroite civilization c.
The spell was found on the sarcophagus of Sit-hedjhotep, now in the Missing scrotum Museumand dates to Egypt's Middle Kingdom. O'Rourke argues that ' m't probably refers instead Demi moore breasts Femal sexual mutalation menstruating woman.
The examination of mummies has shown no evidence of FGM. Citing the Australian pathologist Grafton Elliot Smithwho examined hundreds of mummies in the early 20th century, Knight writes that the genital area may resemble Type III because during mummification the skin of the outer labia was pulled toward the anus to cover the pudendal cleftpossibly to prevent sexual violation.
It was similarly not possible to determine whether Types I or II had been performed, because soft tissues had deteriorated or been removed by the embalmers. The Greek geographer Strabo c. The surgery is performed in this way: Have the girl sit on a chair while a muscled young man standing behind her places his arms below the girl's thighs. Have him separate and steady her legs and whole body.
Standing in front and taking hold of the clitoris with a broad-mouthed forceps in his left hand, the surgeon stretches it outward, while with the right hand, he cuts it off at the point next to the pincers of the forceps. It is proper to let a length remain from that cut off, about the size of the membrane that's between the nostrils, so as to take away the excess material only; as I have said, the part to be removed is at that point just above the pincers of the forceps.
Because the clitoris is a skinlike structure and stretches out excessively, do not cut off too much, as Changing erections urinary fistula may result from cutting such large growths too deeply.
The genital area was then cleaned with a sponge, frankincense powder and wine or cold water, and wrapped in linen bandages dipped in vinegar, until the seventh day when calaminerose petals, date pits, or a "genital powder made from baked clay" might be applied. Whatever the practice's origins, infibulation became linked to slavery. Thus, Mackie argues, a "practice associated with shameful female slavery came to stand for honor".
Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) means piercing, cutting, removing, or sewing closed all or part of a girl's or woman's external genitals for no medical reason. Researchers estimate more than , girls and women in the U.S. have experienced or are at risk of FGM/C. 1 Worldwide, as many as million girls and women alive today have been cut. 2 FGM/C is often a part of the. Feb 06, · Between million and million women and girls are thought to be living with the consequences of female genital mutilation, according to the World Health Organisation.. FGM is Author: Sarah Boseley. Sexual pleasure after FGM. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.".
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Canadian officials have expressed concern that a few thousand Canadian girls are at risk of "vacation cutting", whereby girls are taken overseas to undergo the procedure, but as of there were no firm figures. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Korieh, Chima If you're expecting a baby, your midwife should ask you if you have had FGM at your antenatal appointment. Nnaemeka argues that the crucial question, broader than FGM, is why the female body is subjected to so much "abuse and indignity", including in the West. Type 1: Clitoridectemy. Falloposcopy Salpingectomy Tubal ligation Essure Tubal reversal. Several small studies have concluded that women with FGM suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Examples include images of women's vulvas after FGM or girls undergoing the procedure. Nicole Warren, Ph. London: Zed Books. Whatever the practice's origins, infibulation became linked to slavery. The practitioners' use of shared instruments is thought to aid the transmission of hepatitis B , hepatitis C and HIV , although no epidemiological studies have shown this. For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia.
In many settings, health care providers perform FGM due to the erroneous belief that the procedure is safer when medicalized 1.
Female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision , [a] is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond. They include removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans ; removal of the inner labia ; and removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva. In this last procedure, known as infibulation , a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid ; the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth. The practice is rooted in gender inequality , attempts to control women's sexuality , and ideas about purity, modesty and beauty. It is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honour and fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion. Since the United Nations has called upon healthcare providers to stop performing all forms of the procedure, including reinfibulation after childbirth and symbolic "nicking" of the clitoral hood.