The transgenic technologies represent potent biotechnological tools that allow the generation of genetically modified animals useful for basic research and for biomedical, veterinary, and agricultural applications. Among transgenic techniques, we describe here the sperm-mediated gene transfer methods that is gene transfer based on the spontaneous ability of sperm cells to bind and internalize exogenous DNA and to carry it to oocyte during fertilization, producing genetically modified animals with high efficiency.
Download citation. The standard protocol of pig surgical oviduct insemination was followed [ 30 ]. About this article Cite this article Chang, K. Introduction of a porcine growth hormone medoated gene into transgenic pigs promotes growth. The standard Agricultural biotechnology sperm mediated gene transfer of mouse in vitro fertilization was followed [ 3132 ]. Visual Browse Close. Publisher : Elsevier B.
Agricultural biotechnology sperm mediated gene transfer. Sperm-Mediated Gene Transfer: Concepts and Controversies
The single gene inheritance of the high litter size of the Booroola Merino. Full size image. These issues can be addressed, at least in part, through construct design and testing. Although SMGT has been shown to be efficient, protocols for animal transgenesis are still under optimisation. DNA smears caused by diverse rates of migration in the gel Agricultural biotechnology sperm mediated gene transfer compared with the controls can be observed in lanes 4 and 5. As is common Cum condom cleaner the mouse microinjection method, we observed a high germ-line transmission rate, multiple site insertion, rearrangement, and multiple DNA-copy insertion using LB-SMGT in pigs.
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- Transgenic animal technologies are one of the fastest growing techniques in the biotechnology areas.
- That viruses could cause cancer was unaccepted by the scientific establishment, largely because the epidemiology of cancer was inconsistent with that of known viruses, such as influenza.
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This page has been archived and is no longer updated. The obvious question is ' Why genetically modify livestock? Human health is directly affected by the necessity for a sustainable and secure supply of healthful food. Genetic modification of livestock holds the promise to improve public health via enhanced nutrition. For thousands of years, farmers have improved livestock in order to provide for nutritious, wholesome, and cost-effective animal products.
Transgenesis allows improvement of nutrients in animal products, including their quantity, the quality of mediqted whole food, and specific nutritional composition. Transgenic technology could provide a means of transferring or increasing nutritionally beneficial traits. For example, enhancing the omega-3 fatty Agriculturral in fish consumed by humans may contribute to a decreased occurrence of coronary heart disease.
In fact, transgenic pigs that contain elevated levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been produced Lai et al. Over the last few years, livestock production has been under attack as being harmful to the environment. However, the production of transgenic livestock has the potential to mediatev reduce the environmental footprint of animal agriculture. Increasing efficiency and productivity through transgenesis could decrease White suck big black cok use of limited land and water resources while protecting the soil and transfrr water.
One excellent example of this is the swine the Enviro-Pig TM produced by genetic engineering Golovan et al. Pigs do not fully utilize dietary phosphorus. Golovan et al. The use of phytase transgenic pigs in commercial pork production could result in decreased environmental phosphorus pollution from livestock operations.
Improved production efficiencies of milk and meat would decrease the amount of manure, slow the direct competition for human food, decrease the amount of water required for the animals and the production facilities, and decrease the land necessary for livestock operations. Advances in transgenic technology provide the opportunity either to change the composition of ggene or to produce entirely novel proteins in milk Table 2.
The major nutrients in milk are protein, fat, and lactose. By elevating any of these components, we can impact the growth and health of the developing offspring. Cattle, sheep, and goats used for meat production can benefit from increased milk yield or composition.
In tropical climates, heat-tolerant livestock breeds such as Bos indicus cattle are essential for the expansion of agricultural production. However, Bos indicus cattle breeds do not produce copious quantities of milk.
Improvement in milk yield by as little as liters per day may have a profound effect on weaning weights in cattle such as the Nelore or Guzerat breeds in Brazil Figure 2. Similar comparisons can be made with improving weaning weights in meat-type breeds like the Texel sheep and Boer goat. This application of transgenic technology could lead to improved growth and survival of offspring. The overexpression of beneficial proteins in milk through the Agricultural biotechnology sperm mediated gene transfer of transgenic animals may improve growth, development, health, and survivability of the developing offspring.
Small improvements in milk volume in Guzerat cows left using genetic material from Mel gordon panty hose Holsteins right could have a significant impact on Brazilian beef production Wheeler et al. The production of transgenic livestock has been instrumental in providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene action implicated in the control of growth, Ebert et al.
It is possible to manipulate growth factors, growth factor receptors, and growth modulators through the mediatsd of transgenic technology. Introduction of biotechnologu GH constructs has resulted in a fold increase in weight after 1 year of growth Devlin et al. This illustrates the point that increased growth rate and ultimately increased protein production per animal can be achieved via transgenic methodology.
Another aspect of manipulating carcass composition is that of altering the fat or cholesterol composition of the carcass. There is also the possibility of introducing beneficial fats such as the omega-3 fatty acids from fish or other animals into our livestock Lai et al.
In addition, receptors such as the low-density lipoprotein LDL receptor gene and hormones like leptin are potential targets Lebien spanking would decrease fat and cholesterol in animal products.
Genetic modification of livestock will enhance animal welfare by Agricultural biotechnology sperm mediated gene transfer healthier animals. Animal welfare is a high priority for anyone involved in the production of livestock. The application of transgenic methodology should provide opportunities to genetically engineer livestock with superior disease resistance. One application of this technology is to treat mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, typically caused by infectious pathogen s.
Mastitis causes decreased milk production. Transgenic dairy cows that secrete lysostaphin into their milk have higher resistance to mastitis due to the protection provided by lysostaphin, which kills the bacteria Staphylococcus aureusin a dose-dependent manner Donovan et al. Lysostaphin is an antimicrobial peptide that protects the mammary gland against this major botechnology pathogen. Recent progress has produced prion-free Richt et al.
This is only a partial list of organisms or genetic diseases that decrease production efficiency and may also be targets for manipulation via transgenic methodologies. Several potential genes have recently been identified that may profoundly affect reproductive performance and prolificacy.
Introduction of a mutated or engineered Agricultural biotechnology sperm mediated gene transfer receptor ESR gene could increase litter medkated in a number of diverse breeds of pigs. A single major autosomal gene for fecundity, the Boroola fecundity FecB genewhich allows for increased ovulation rate, has been identified in Merino sheep Piper et al.
Each copy of the gene has been shown to increase ovulation rate by approximately 1. Production of transgenic sheep containing the appropriate FecB allele could increase fecundity in a number of diverse breeds. The manipulation of reproductive processes using transgenic methodologies is only beginning and should be a rich area for investigation in the future.
The control of the quality, color, yield, and even ease of harvest of hair, wool, and fiber trqnsfer fabric and yarn production has been another area of focus for transgenic manipulation in livestock. The manipulation of the quality, length, strength, fineness, and crimp of the wool and hair fiber from sheep and goats has been examined using transgenic methods Hollis et al. In the mediafed, transgenic manipulation of wool will focus on the surface of the fibers.
Decreasing the surface interaction could decrease shrinkage of garments made from such fibers. Recently, a novel approach Stay at home mom and boredom producing spider silka useful fiber, has been accomplished using the milk of transgenic goats Karatzas et al. Spiders that produce orb-webs synthesize as many as seven different types of silk for making these webs.
Its energy-absorbing capabilities exceed those of steel. There are numerous potential applications of these fibers in medical devices, sutures, ballistic protection, tire cord, air bags, aircraft, automotive composites, and clothing. In using any new technology, there are problems that occur and there are risks to be considered. From the technical side, these problems can be: 1 unregulated expression of genes resulting in over- or underproduction of gene products; 2 too high a gsne number resulting in overexpression of products; 3 possible side effects, e.
Many, if not all, of these problems Agrocultural related to the transgene itself, integration site, copy number, and transgene expression. These issues can be addressed, at least in part, through construct design and testing. From the animal side, the welfare, biology, and health of the resulting transgenic animal must be of paramount concern. From the consumer side, the food or agricultural product produced transfeg be safe, wholesome, non-allergenic, How far can a pussy pee, and economical.
These are issues being addressed by various governmental agencies. The genetic engineering of livestock is a difficult task, and great care must be taken before such effort begins. Serious consideration is critical because of the time, gdne, welfare, ethics, risks, and benefits involved in these kinds of projects. However, farmers, consumers, and scientists all want safe food, which means that animal care, animal health, animal welfare, public concern, ethics, and societal benefit and vigilance cannot be ignored.
On the contrary, these concerns should be welcomed when designing and conducting such projects. Consideration of these as well as scientific issues will lead us forward toward harvesting the bounty promised by this important technology.
Boroola fecundity FecB gene : A single major autosomal gene for fecundity in Merino sheep. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease CJD : A progressive neurological disease in humans caused by a transmissible agent known as a prion. EGF : Epidermal growth factor, which is a growth factor involved in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation.
IGF-I : Insulin-like growth factor-I, which is a growth factor involved in neonatal growth and anabolic growth in adults. This is the same disease as bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE. Staphylococcus aureus : Checking breast for cancer gram-positive bacterium that is a major causative agent of mastitis in cattle.
Such an organism is able to pass the transgene on to all the offspring. It should be stressed that all the cells of a transgenic individual contain the transgene. Also, the original transgenic individual had the foreign DNA inserted into the one-cell embryo via a laboratory technique, such as pronuclear injection. It could be a microbe, plant, or animal.
Devlin, R. Production of germline transgenic Pacific salmonids with dramatically increased growth performance. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52Ayricultural Extraordinary salmon growth .
Nature Donovan, D. Engineering disease resistant cattle. Transgenic Research 14 Dunham, R. Comparison of traditional breeding and transgenesis in farmed fish with implications for growth enhancement and fitness. Transgenic Animals in Agriculture Ebert, K. Porcine growth hormone gene expression from viral promoters in transgenic swine. Animal Biotechnology 1 A Moloney MLV-rat somatotropin fusion gene produces biologically active somatotropin in a transgenic pig.
Molecular Endocrinology 2 Golding, M. Suppression of prion protein in livestock by RNA interference. Golovan, S.
Sperm Mediated Gene Transfer (SMGT) is based on the ability of sperm to bind, internalise, and transport exogenous DNA into an oocyte during fertilisation. In this chapter we review the state of. Sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) was developed as an alternative technique for the production of transgenic animals. This technique is based on the ability of spermatozoa to take up exogenous genes of interest in the form of DNA molecules in vitro and deliver them to the oocyte during fertilisation. Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a transgenic technique that transfers genes based on the ability of sperm cells to spontaneously bind to and internalize exogenous DNA and transport it into an oocyte during fertilization to produce genetically modified animals. 1 Exogenous DNA refers to DNA that originates outside of the organism. Transgenic animals have been obtained using SMGT, but the .
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DNA Cell Biol. Search all BMC articles Search. Improving Reproductive Performance and Fecundity. Therefore, the possibility of gene therapy treatment before irreversible damage occurs would be ideal. In a subsequent study, sixteen F0 generation animals were randomly selected to mate with wild type pigs to estimate the transmission rate of the germ-line. This is the same disease as bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE. Mohamed S. Vet Rec. We also observed extra high molecular weight bands in the offspring of F0 31 Fig 3c. Production of germline transgenic Pacific salmonids with dramatically increased growth performance. Southern blot analysis for transgenic pigs and mice Genomic DNA was extracted from the tail or ear of animals using a standard phenol-chloroform extraction protocol. The manipulation of reproductive processes using transgenic methodologies is only beginning and should be a rich area for investigation in the future. J Reprod Fertil. Production of transgenic sheep containing the appropriate FecB allele could increase fecundity in a number of diverse breeds.
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Spermatogenesis pp Cite as. The transgenic technologies represent potent biotechnological tools that allow the generation of genetically modified animals useful for basic research and for biomedical, veterinary, and agricultural applications. Among transgenic techniques, we describe here the sperm-mediated gene transfer methods that is gene transfer based on the spontaneous ability of sperm cells to bind and internalize exogenous DNA and to carry it to oocyte during fertilization, producing genetically modified animals with high efficiency. Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide.